A fundamental characteristic of the eye, as an optic system, is the ability to modify its feature depending on the distance of the object observed, in such a way that the image is always formed on the retina (accommodation).
Myopia, or Nearsightedness, is an ocular abnormality due to an ocular bulb longer than normal. This results in a shift of focus in front of the retina with consequent difficulty in the distance vision and other retinal problems, especially in cases of high or degenerative myopia.
The latter it is not only a refractive error but a form that gives rise to serious hereditary fundus changes. It is linked to the heavily abnormal size of the eye, which could reach a length of 30 mm (circa 1.2 inches). It starts precociously, around 2-3 years; in general, at the first exam is found a 5-6 diopters myopia with some alteration of the fundus. The retina appears stretched, thinned, with zones of atrophy and pigmentary alteration. These alterations have to be controlled regularly to prevent complications.
In Nearsightedness, the elongated shape of the eyeball involves a continuous traction of the retinal tissues with a reduction of the volume of the capillaries. For this reason, you can notice an alteration of retinal metabolism and tissue degeneration, caused by hypoxia.
There is also a chronic oxidative stress caused by the increase of free radicals or by a low antioxidant capacity. This phenomenon is at the center of the pathologies associated with myopia: hypoxia with induction of formation of new blood vessels, cataract, floaters, the detachment of the vitreous and retina.
In these cases is recommended an adjuvant treatment with vasoprotectors and supporting microcirculation supplements.